Tuesday, October 17, 2023

Primary education


Primary education is the first stage of formal education, coming after preschools/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education in India or elementary education lasts eight years. Children aged 6 to 14 years complete the following two stages: primary stage, grade 1st to 5th upper primary stage, grade 6th to 8th.

India has achieved significant progress in recent decades regarding access to schooling and enrolment rates in primary education. Still, dropout rates and low levels of learning continue to be issued for state and central administrations. Nevertheless, primary school enrollment in India has been a success story, thanks mainly to different programs and drives to encourage participation even in rural areas.

According to Malcolm X, a human rights activist, "Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today." Unfortunately, the education system, or more precisely to say the school system in India, is based on a hierarchy of pre-primary, primary, secondary, and senior secondary. This classification is based on the children's age group that falls into the categories. This article will focus on the state of affairs of primary education in India.

Primary education or elementary education is the first stage of formal education. The stage students enter after preschool or pre-primary education (offering early education to children before joining primary school) and before secondary school.

The primary school level of education is further categorized into the lower and upper primary, in which the children within the age group 6-10 and 11-12 are placed, respectively.

Lower primary refers to class 1st to class 4th, and upper primary, commonly referred to as middle school, refers to class 5th to 8th.

80% of the schools offering an elementary level of education are either run by the government or supported, making it the most extensive education provider in India.

According to ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education), primary education was designed to give a basic education in reading, writing, mathematics, and an elementary understanding of other subjects.

Primary Schools in India

In 2011, it was noted that there were 5,816,673 primary school teachers within the country. However, rural India faced significant problems such as a proper school structure, well-trained professional teachers, chairs and tables for students, washrooms, drinking water that has raised hygiene and safety concerns.

Over the years, the number of schools has multiplied, and India has surpassed China to have the most number of schools even though both countries have a similar population.

Many primary schools in India have fewer than 50 students enrolled. The majority of the schools in rural areas have fewer teachers managing more than the average number of students.

There is also a shortage of well-trained professional teachers in these areas, resulting in a higher dropout rate and students' lack of attendance.

Lack of good resources and infrastructure is also one of the concerns for distorted students to teachers in schools.

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