Wednesday, October 18, 2023

Current status of primary school


What is the Current Status of the Primary Schools in India?

Improving learning will necessitate several changes, including increased teacher responsibility. According to school visits, teacher attendance in primary and middle schools is only 85%. Increasing the time teachers spend on-task and increasing their responsibility for student learning is also needed. Better assessments at each grade level and more effective monitoring and support systems are also required as part of this process. Overall, the public school system needs a more effective general administration system.

In India, about 20% of children who come in the age group of 6 to 14 are out of the enrollment ratio, and the children who have been enrolled are lack attendance in schools. According to an estimate, around 26% of children tend to drop out before standard 5. The state of affairs for primary education in India is grim in states like Rajasthan and Bihar.
What are the Obstacles Before Primary Education in India?
There are many reasons for the ongoing situation in the Primary education in India and can be understood by addressing the obstacles:

In India, a large population lives below the poverty line, contributing primarily to the problem.

Many schools are yet to be made in the rural sector, and the schools available in the urban areas are sometimes a burden for the parents as the busy roads and traffic make the parents not risk their kids' lives.

The conditions of schools in rural areas are another example of the poor functioning of the primary sector.

The education system is another constraint to primary education in India. The education given to children or teenagers does not reflect the work environment. This is why parents prefer to send their children to be an apprentice under someone and learn a craft to make a living in the future.

Caste discrimination is another reason for the large deficit in the Primary education in India.

Allowance of child labour is another obstacle before primary education.

Teachers lack motivation and training.

Changes in the Primary Education System in India

The government has undertaken several measures to resolve the problems and enhance education received by students in primary school. The authorities started the District Education Revitalisation Programme (DERP) in 1994 to reform and vitalize existing Primary education in India.

India's central government-managed 85% of the DERP, while the respective states controlled the remaining 15%. It led to 1.6 lakh schools within the country, where 84,000 schools offered alternative education to 35 lakh students.

The authorities enacted the Right to Education(RTE) within India's constitution on the 4th of August 2009, which stressed the importance of providing free and compulsory education for children between 6 to 14.

In 2016, Kerala became the first state to have achieved 100% literacy in the primary education in India level of study. It was attained after the government had set up its literacy program called Athulyam.

The complete change of government schools in India by the government of Delhi is another significant achievement in the sphere of primary education in India.

Over time, the government incorporated several schemes such as:

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is currently one of the largest initiatives in the educational sector in the world.

Midday meal scheme.

Schemes for infrastructure development for minority institutes.

Due to the lack of girls in schools, the government has also introduced various schemes as given below to encourage girl children to receive an education:

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao

The national program for the education of girls at elementary education:

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidhyalaya

The government took these steps and implemented them by both the government and various NGOs so that no child lacks the fundamental right to education.

Tuesday, October 17, 2023

Primary education


Primary education is the first stage of formal education, coming after preschools/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education in India or elementary education lasts eight years. Children aged 6 to 14 years complete the following two stages: primary stage, grade 1st to 5th upper primary stage, grade 6th to 8th.

India has achieved significant progress in recent decades regarding access to schooling and enrolment rates in primary education. Still, dropout rates and low levels of learning continue to be issued for state and central administrations. Nevertheless, primary school enrollment in India has been a success story, thanks mainly to different programs and drives to encourage participation even in rural areas.

According to Malcolm X, a human rights activist, "Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today." Unfortunately, the education system, or more precisely to say the school system in India, is based on a hierarchy of pre-primary, primary, secondary, and senior secondary. This classification is based on the children's age group that falls into the categories. This article will focus on the state of affairs of primary education in India.

Primary education or elementary education is the first stage of formal education. The stage students enter after preschool or pre-primary education (offering early education to children before joining primary school) and before secondary school.

The primary school level of education is further categorized into the lower and upper primary, in which the children within the age group 6-10 and 11-12 are placed, respectively.

Lower primary refers to class 1st to class 4th, and upper primary, commonly referred to as middle school, refers to class 5th to 8th.

80% of the schools offering an elementary level of education are either run by the government or supported, making it the most extensive education provider in India.

According to ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education), primary education was designed to give a basic education in reading, writing, mathematics, and an elementary understanding of other subjects.

Primary Schools in India

In 2011, it was noted that there were 5,816,673 primary school teachers within the country. However, rural India faced significant problems such as a proper school structure, well-trained professional teachers, chairs and tables for students, washrooms, drinking water that has raised hygiene and safety concerns.

Over the years, the number of schools has multiplied, and India has surpassed China to have the most number of schools even though both countries have a similar population.

Many primary schools in India have fewer than 50 students enrolled. The majority of the schools in rural areas have fewer teachers managing more than the average number of students.

There is also a shortage of well-trained professional teachers in these areas, resulting in a higher dropout rate and students' lack of attendance.

Lack of good resources and infrastructure is also one of the concerns for distorted students to teachers in schools.

Friday, October 13, 2023

Stages of Education


Education in India follows a uniform structure of school education which is known as the 10+2 system. This system is being followed by all Indian States and Union Territories. But not all of them follow a distinct pattern as per the system.

1. Pre Primary Stage

Pre primary education in India is provided to children between 3–6 years by Kindergarten, Playway or Play Schools. These schools have varying terminology for different levels of classes, beginning from – Pre-Nursery, Nursery, KG, LKG (Lower Kindergarten) and UKG (Upper Kindergarten). Most of the pre-primary education in India is provided by private schools

2. The Primary Stage

Primary education in India offered by both private and government schools usually consist of students aged between 5 to 12 years. The duration of study in this stage is 4-5 years. Common subjects include English, Hindi, Mathematics, Environmental Science and General Knowledge. Sometimes also termed as Elementary Education, it is free in government schools but it is paid in the private schools. The Government has made elementary education compulsory for children between the age group of years 6 and 14. Most of the primary education provided by primary schools in India is imparted from class 1st to class 4th or 5th. Some of the states/UTs which follow 1st to 5th class of primary education are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karaikal and Yanam regions of Pondicherry etc. Some of the states/UTs which follow 1st to 4th classes of primary education are Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondichery
desh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi etc.

4) The Secondary Stage

Secondary Stage of education covering 2-3 years of academic study starts with classes 8th-10th. consisting of students aged between 14-16 years. The schools which impart education up till 10th class are known as Secondary Schools, High Schools, Senior Schools etc. Some of the states/UTs which follow 8th -10th class of secondary stage are Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep etc. Some of the states/UTs which follow 9th -10th class of secondary stage are Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karaikal region of Pondicherry etc.

5) Senior Secondary Stage -

Senior Secondary Education in India is of only 2 years. There is uniformity on this level of education in terms of duration and classes i.e. all the States/UTs follow this 10+2 pattern. Senior Secondary Schools in India include classes 11th to 12th. consisting students aged between 16-18 years. At this level of education students have the freedom to choose their preferred stream and subjects. They can pursue Arts, Commerce, Science (medical & non medical). The schools which provide education up till 12th class are commonly known as Senior Secondary Schools or Higher Secondary Schools. Some universities and colleges also offer the education of these classes.

6) Undergraduate Stage – 

Undergraduate education in India is of 3-4 years. Undergraduate stage of education is also known as higher education in India. Students studying in this level, generally begin their education from 18 onwards. As per one estimate 88% of undergraduate education is provided by Colleges in India. Majority of the undergraduate courses of 3 years duration belong to field of arts, humanities, science etc. and majority of 4 years of duration belong to the field of agriculture, engineering, pharmaceutical sciences technology. However, there are courses belonging to fields of architecture, law and medicine whose duration is 5 years.

7) Postgraduate Stage – 

Postgraduate education in India is of 2-3 years. Postgraduate stages of courses are known as Masters courses or Doctorate courses. Masters course are usually of 2 years duration and doctorate (research) courses are of 3 years duration. Also referred as higher education, 56% of post-graduate education is imparted through colleges. PG education in India is largely provided by universities in India. PG education caters largely to a specific field or sub field of any preferred discipline. Thus, one can specialise in any of preferred subjects at this level. Those who are interested in conducting large amount of research work pursue these courses.

Adult Education in India –

Adult Education in India comes under the purview of the Department of School Education and Literacy. The Bureau of Adult Education and National Literacy Mission under the Department functions as the Secretariat of the National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA). National Literacy Mission was set up on 5th May,1988 to impart a new sense of urgency and seriousness to adult education. The Directorate of Adult Education provides necessary technical and resource support to the NLMA.

Distance Education in India –

Distance education provided by institutes is controlled by the Distance Education Council of India. Distance education is helpful to those who cannot join regular schools or colleges. At the school level, National Institute of Open Schooling offers education through distance learning. While, at the college or university level, Open universities provides distance education. Distance education can also be pursued online via internet. Some like the Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) provides online education through – BITS Virtual University.

Homeschooling in India –

Homeschooling isn’t widespread in India and neither it is widely accepted. This type of alternative education It is considered for handicapped or those who are unable to attend regular school due to various factors. While some use Montessori method, Unschooling, Radical Unschooling, Waldorf education or School-at-home. Others prefer CBSE, NIOS or NOS and IGCSE prescribed syllabus.

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