Wednesday, August 30, 2023

Indian Education System From Ancient to Modern

 



The education system in India is very diversified, the country has a unique education system that is designed to support the nation’s rich heritage, culture, values & customs.

Education in India is managed by the government bodies that mainly come under either the Central Government or the State government. 

In ancient times, early education in India was mostly available to the children of higher caste, the education is delivered through the “Gurukula” system. In the Gurukula education system, anyone who wished to study went to the guru’s (Teacher) house to study. 

In the Gurukula system of education, more emphasis was given to developing character and instilling human values like moral & ethical behavior, empathy, leadership, creativity, etc. The aims of education in the Gurukula era revolved around the acquisition of supreme knowledge, the development of character, and spiritual & cultural education. 

The learning in the Gurukul creates a strong bond between the teacher and the student as the student lives and studies in the Guru’s house and assists him in all daily household chores, the teaching in the Gurukula was not confined to memorizing the lectures/information but was closely linked to the nature and life. 

The relationship between the Guru (teacher) and the Shishya (student) was an important part of education. The Guru teaches everything the student wishes to learn from Sanskrit, Holy Scriptures, Mathematics, Politics, Law & Justice & Sciences. 

The Gurus in ancient times offered education by means of donations and not by asking fees. The education in those eras was religious but secular subjects were also taught like Science, Law & Justice etc. the knowledge in that era was also imparted in a way that the task a particular society had to perform. The Brahmins (priest class) were imparted knowledge of religion and philosophy. The warrior class (Kshatriya), were taught and trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business class ( Vaishya), were taught trade & commerce, and the working class of the Shudras were generally deprived of educational advantages.

Takshashila and Nalanda are great examples of ancient Higher education learning institutes of India. Nalanda was the oldest university of education in the world. These institutions imparted knowledge and attracted a large number of foreign students to study topics such as Buddhist Páli literature, logic, and páli grammar.

Modern Education in India

Modern school education in India was brought by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The school curriculum included subjects such as Science, Mathematics and also English Language.

The teaching & learning was classroom-based, the teaching was professional and result oriented, and the link of teaching & learning with nature & life was somewhat broken.

The first education board in India was established in the year 1921 known as the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education. Later in the year 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana was established as the country’s central education board. 

In 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and the board was renamed as Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). All the schools in Delhi and many other parts of the country got affiliated with the board. The primary function of the board was to provide an academic curriculum, conduct examinations, and prepare textbooks.

The modern education system was introduced into India by the British which is still followed in the country. This system changed the age-old archaic systems with the English way.

Past the independence of India, the government of India understood the great need and value of education and put in great effort to get people into schools and educate them.

The far-sight of the visionary leader Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru introduced the much-needed educational reforms in the country. Presently, the country has world-renowned universities attracting students from all over the world.

The modern education system in India follows a pyramidal structure starting with the Pre-primary level, Primary (elementary) level, Secondary level, and higher education.

Through the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2002, elementary education has been made a fundamental right.

Successive Union and state governments have spent millions of rupees to spread literacy in the country with Kerala becoming the state with the highest literacy rate in India.

The Indian modern education system aims to provide free and compulsory elementary education to all irrespective of their caste or creed.

To ensure there is no disparity in access to education, the government has also provided reservations for the SC, ST, OBS, and other minorities in the society.


Thursday, August 17, 2023

Education history in Indian subcontinent

 



Education in the Indian subcontinent began with teaching of traditional elements such as Indian religions, Indian mathematics, Indian logic at early Hindu and Buddhist centres of learning such as ancient Takshashila (in modern-day Pakistan) and Nalanda (in India). Islamic education became ingrained with the establishment of Islamic empires in the Indian subcontinent in the Middle Ages while the coming of the Europeans later brought western education to colonial India.

Several Western-style universities were established during the period of British rule in the 19th century. A series of measures continuing throughout the early half of the 20th century ultimately laid the foundation of the educational system of the Republic of India, Pakistan and much of the Indian subcontinent.

Early education in India commenced under the supervision of a guru or prabhu. Initially, education was open to all and seen as one of the methods to achieve Moksha in those days, or enlightenment.[citation needed] As time progressed, due to a decentralised social structure,[citation needed] the education was imparted on the basis of varna and the related duties that one had to perform as a member of a specific caste.The Brahmans learned about scriptures and religion while the Kshatriya were educated in the various aspects of warfare.The Vaishya caste learned commerce and other specific vocational courses.[citation needed] The other caste Shudras, were men of working class and they were trained on skills to carry out these jobs.The earliest venues of education in India were often secluded from the main population.Students were expected to follow strict monastic guidelines prescribed by the guru and stay away from cities in ashrams.However, as population increased under the Gupta empire centres of urban learning became increasingly common and Cities such as Varanasi and the Buddhist centre at Nalanda became increasingly visible.




Education in India is a piece of education traditional form was closely related to religion.Among the Heterodox schools of belief were the Jain and Buddhist schools.Heterodox Buddhist education was more inclusive and aside of the monastic orders the Buddhist education centres were urban institutes of learning such as Taxila and Nalanda where grammar, medicine, philosophy, logic, metaphysics, arts and crafts etc. were also taught.Early Buddhist institutions of higher learning like Taxila and Nalanda continued to function well into the common era and were attended by students from China and Central Asia.

On the subject of education for the nobility Joseph Prabhu writes: "Outside the religious framework, kings and princes were educated in the arts and sciences related to government: politics (danda-nıti), economics (vartta), philosophy (anvıksiki), and historical traditions (itihasa). Here the authoritative source was Kautilya’s Arthashastra, often compared to Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince for its worldly outlook and political scheming.The Rigveda (c.1700-1000 BCE) mentions female poets called brahmavadinis, specifically Lopamudra and Ghosha.By 800 BCE women such as Gargi and Maitreyi were mentioned as scholars in the religious Upnishads.Maya, mother of the historic Buddha, was an educated queen while other women in India contributed to writing of the Pali canon.Out of the composers of the Sangam literature 154 were women.However, the education and society of the era continued to be dominated by educated male population.

Chinese scholars such as Xuanzang and Yi Jing arrived on Indian institutions of learning to survey Buddhist texts. Yi Jing additionally noted the arrival of 56 scholars from India, Japan, and Korea. However, the Buddhist institutions of learning were slowly giving way to a resurgent tradition of Brahmanism during that era. Scholars from India also journeyed to China to translate Buddhist texts. During the 10th century a monk named Dharmadeva from Nalanda journeyed to China and translated a number of texts. Another centre at Vikramshila maintained close relations with Tibet.The Buddhist teacher Atisa was the head monk in Vikramshila before his journey to Tibet.

Examples of royal patronage include construction of buildings under the Rastrakuta dynasty in 945 CE.The institutions arranged for multiple residences for educators as well as state sponsored education and arrangements for students and scholars.Similar arrangements were made by the Chola dynasty in 1024 CE, which provided state support to selected students in educational establishments.Temple schools from 12–13th centuries included the school at the Nataraja temple situated at Chidambaram which employed 20 librarians, out of whom 8 were copiers of manuscripts and 2 were employed for verification of the copied manuscriptsThe remaining staff conducted other duties, including preservation and maintained of reference material.

Another establishment during this period is the Uddandapura institute established during the 8th century under the patronage of the Pala dynasty. The institution developed ties with Tibet and became a centre of Tantric Buddhism.During the 10–11th centuries the number of monks reached a thousand, equaling the strength of monks at the sacred Mahabodhi complex. By the time of the arrival of the Islamic scholar Al Biruni India already had an established system of science and technology in place.Also by the 12th century, invasions from India's northern borders disrupted traditional education systems as foreign armies raided educational institutes, among other establishments.

Wednesday, August 16, 2023

Education history system

 The education in India has a rich and interesting history. It is believed that in the ancient days, the education was imparted orally by the sages and the scholars and the information was passed on from one generation to the other. 




The education in India has a rich and interesting history. It is believed that in the ancient days, the education was imparted orally by the sages and the scholars and the information was passed on from one generation to the other.

After the development of letters, it took the form of writing using the palm leaves and the barks of trees. This also helped in spreading the written literature. The temples and the community centers formed the role of schools. Later, the Gurukul system of education came into existence.




The Gurukuls were the traditional Hindu residential schools of learning which were typically in the teacher's house or a monastery. Even though the education was free, the students from well-to-do families paid the Gurudakshina which was a voluntary at the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted knowledge on various aspects of the religion, the scriptures, the philosophy, the literature, the warfare, the statecraft, the medicine astrology and the history. This system is referred as the oldest and the most effective system of education.

In the first millennium and the few centuries preceding, there was a flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, and Vikramshila Universities. The important subjects were mainly the art, the architecture, the painting, the logic, the grammar, the philosophy, the astronomy, the literature, the Buddhism, the Hinduism, the arthashastra, the law, and the medicine. Each university specialized in a particular field of study. For instance, the Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while the Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy.





The Nalanda, being the biggest centre, had all the branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students at its peak. The British records reveal that the education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The main subjects were the arithmetic, the theology, the law, the astronomy, the metaphysics, the ethics, the medical science and the religion. The school had the student representatives from all classes of the society.




The present system of education was introduced and founded by the British in the 20th century, by the recommendations of Macaulay. It has western style and content. The British government did not recognize the traditional structures and so they have declined. It is said that even Gandhi described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree which was destroyed during the British rule.

The first medical college of Kerala was started at Calicut, in 1942-43 during World War II. As there was a shortage of doctors to serve the military, the British Government opened a branch of Madras Medical College in Malabar, which was under Madras Presidency then. After independence, the education became the responsibility of the states and the Central Government coordinated the technical and higher education by specifying the standards.

In 1964, the Education Commission started functioning with 16 members of which 11 were Indian experts and 5 were foreign experts. The Commission also discussed with many international agencies, experts and consultants in the educational as well as

scientific field. Later in 1976, the education became a joint responsibility of both the state and the Centre through a constitutional amendment.

The central government through the Ministry of Human Resource Development's Department of Education and the governments at the states formulated the education policy and planning. NPE 1986 and revised PoA 1992 envisioned that free and compulsory education should be provided for all children up to 14 years of age before the commencement of 21st century. Also, the Government of India made a commitment that by 2000, 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be spent on education, out of which half would be spent on the Primary education.

In November 1998, Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee announced setting up of Vidya Vahini Network to link up universities, UGC and CSIR. The general marks-based education system is now being replaced by the grades-based system.



Tuesday, August 15, 2023

History of education

 


Understand India’s growing primary, secondary and higher education system, as we explore the history of education in India and how it plans to develop. 

India has a unique education system designed to uphold its nation’s culture, history, values, and customs.

In the past, education in India was reserved mostly for children considered to be higher-caste. However, new education policies have been aiming to achieve equal opportunities and the right to education for all children, irrespective of social class.    

Here, we’ll look at both traditional and modern facts surrounding education in India, looking in depth at the latest policies that aim to create a more inclusive education system.

We’ll also explore ways you can empower your students’ thirst for knowledge while meeting new classroom demands and needs, across primary, secondary and higher education.




A brief history of India’s education system

The Gurukul was India’s first system of education. It was a residential schooling system dating back to around 5000 BC, where shishya (student) and guru (teacher) used to reside in the guru’s ashram (home) or in close proximity. This allowed for an emotional bond to be developed prior to the transmission of knowledge. The mode of communication was the ancient Sanskrit language.

The basis of learning wasn’t only to read books and memorise information, but also incorporated the holistic development of a child. This includes their mental, cognitive, physical and spiritual wellness. Subjects taught were religion, holy scriptures, medicine, philosophy, warfare, statecraft, astrology and more. 
The emphasis was on developing student’s human values such as self-reliance, empathy, creativity, plus strong moral and ethical behaviours. The aim was that this knowledge could later be practically implemented to find solutions to real-life problems. 

The six aims of education for students of the Gurukul were:

The acquisition of supreme knowledge:   

 The ultimate purpose of the Gurukul education system was to understand Brahma (God) and the world beyond sensorial pleasures to attain immortality.

Development of character: 

Through study of the Vedas (ancient texts), the student developed will-power, a requirement for a good character, which subsequently allowed them to create a more favourable attitude and positive outlook towards life.


All-rounded development: 

Learning to withdraw the senses inwards and practice introversion was considered as the ideal method for complete living. This allowed students to become aware of the inner workings of the mind and their responses and reactions while performing various duties in the Gurukul.


Social virtues: 

By training body, mind and heart, the student was inspired to only speak truth and refrain from deceit. This was considered to be the highest human virtue. They were also encouraged to believe in giving to charities which made them socially efficient.


Spiritual development: 

The ancient texts suggest introversion as the best method for spiritual development, including Yagyas (rituals). Therefore, the student spent time in reflection and isolation from the external world to look entirely within himself to attain self-knowledge and self-realisation.
Cultural education: One day a year, students offered food to a passerby or a guest. This act was considered a sacrifice equivalent to one’s social and religious duty to another. 


Cultural education:

 One day a year, students offered food to a passerby or a guest. This act was considered a sacrifice equivalent to one’s social and religious duty to another. 




Facts and statistics about education in India

Under India’s Right to Education Act 2020, free and compulsory education is ensured to every child between the ages of three to 18.
Statistics on education in India show that about 26% of the Indian population (1.39 billion) falls into the 0-14 year category, which provides a great opportunity for the primary education sector. 
Recent reports show that the literacy rate of India is 77.7%, with Kerala being the state with the highest literacy rate. In terms of English speaking, India was ranked 52nd among the countries in an English Proficiency Index.


Aims for the future of education in India

Now we know a bit about the past state of education in India, what can we expect to see in the future?
Like many other countries, the pandemic has pushed a need for digital involvement in the education sector in India. Along with this, we can expect to see a shift in skills-based education as opposed to qualification-lead education.
By 2030, it’s estimated that India’s higher education system will have more than 20 universities among the global top 200 universities. It’s also thought that it will be among the top five countries in the world in terms of research output.


How does the modern Indian education system work?

It’s an undeniable fact that education in modern India has moved on from that of the “Gurukula.” The curriculum is mostly taught in English or Hindi, computer technology and skills have been integrated into learning systems, and emphasis is more on the competitive examination and grades rather than moral, ethical and spiritual education.
The modern school system was originally brought to India by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. “Modern” subjects like science and mathematics took precedence, and metaphysics and philosophy were deemed unnecessary.
Up until July 2020, the schooling system in India was based on the 10+2 system, which rewarded a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) once completing class 10th and Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) by completing class 12th.
As a result of the new National Education Policy (NEP), this has been replaced with the 5+3+3+4 system. The division of stages has been made to fall in line with the cognitive development stages that a child naturally goes through.


Thursday, August 10, 2023

Making a Study Schedule

 



Start your study schedule early in the year. 

The best time to prepare a study schedule is at the beginning of the school year when you receive the syllabus for each course. Start by writing down all major homework assignments, quizzes, tests, and exams on your calendar.
Color code your study schedule for each subject.
You can start a study schedule at any point in the year, but it is best to start as early as possible. You can even make individual study schedules for final exam time.


Work backward from important deadlines. 

Once you have the important dates on your calendar, add in other important study deadlines before these hard deadlines to stay on task. Add in tasks like “review lecture notes,” “skim textbook chapters,” “rework homework problems,” etc. Give yourself at least a week to study for big tests.


Identify free time in your schedule. 

Write down everything that you are obligated to do each day (classes, meetings, extracurricular activities, exercise, etc.) on your calendar. Once you have everything on your calendar, you can figure out how much free time you have each day. Make a list of all of the time you have for each day and how large the blocks of time are. Your schedule might look something like this:
Mon: two 2-hr blocks
Tues: three 1-hr blocks
Wed: 4 hrs
Thurs: two 2-hr blocks
Sun: 6 hrs





Schedule these blocks for study time.

 The material that you need to cover each week will change, but take a look at your schedule at the beginning of each week or for the next two weeks and plan what you are going to work on. You may need to read for one class, do homework for another, or work on a project for a third.
One-hour blocks of time between classes are a great time to review notes or flip through flashcards. Take advantage of these times and you could add 4-8 hours of study time to your schedule.


Include breaks every two hours.

 If you have large blocks of study time on the weekends, make sure you schedule in breaks. If you have five hours of time to study, take a 30-minute break in the middle to give your brain time to process and decompress.
If you find you are easily distracted, try setting a timer and working in 20-30 minutes chunks with a short 5-minute break between chunks.
Reward yourself when you take a break by getting a snack or drink or playing a game. You might also time your study sessions so that when you're done you can go do something fun with your friends. This way you'll feel like you're working towards something, even if you don't particularly like studying.
You also want to make sure you have time for fun and social activities. Don’t schedule every second of free time for studying because you will be unlikely to stick to that


Stick to your schedule. 

A schedule is only good if you actually follow it. The study schedule is not absolute. If you need to revise it as you go along, definitely do that. You may find that you work a lot better in the morning and have trouble working in the afternoon. Use this information to your advantage and try to maximize your morning study time.
Schedule the more important and/or difficult material for your best study times. Work on the easier material when you are not at your best.
Make sure your schedule is flexible and can accommodate emergencies or conflicts as they may arise.


Tuesday, August 8, 2023

Creating a Study Space

 



Choose a quiet space to study.


 The best level of background noise is different for everyone, but in general, a quiet place is the best for studying. An ideal study space is in your home, perhaps at a kitchen table or in an office-specific for studying. If you need more background noise, try a coffee shop.
Avoid making your bedroom a study space as this can lead to associating your place of sleep with stressful studying.


Get a study group together. 


Not everybody studies well in groups, and you may not want a group for every class or subject. If you feel like being in a group motivates you to study rather than distracting you, a study group that meets regularly can be great if you are a social learner


Make the space comfortable.


 You want the space to be comfortable, but not overly comfortable. Set up a desk and a comfortable chair. The desk should be about waist-height and the chair height should allow you to place your feet flat on the floor and rest your elbows on the table without scrunching. If using a computer, position it 18-30 inches away from you.
Make sure the temperature isn’t too hot or too cold.
Avoid reading in your bed or on a comfy couch so you won’t fall asleep.




Optimize the lighting. 


If possible, make your study space near a window to get lots of natural light. If you are studying at night or don’t have access to a window, make sure you have a good lighting. Simple overhead lighting is often not enough. Get a desk lamp or a floor lamp to brighten your study space.
Position lights so that there are no distracting shadows.
Avoid placing lights in a way that cause them to shine directly into your eyes.





Keep everything you need nearby. 


Once you get in the study zone, you do not want to be distracted by having to grab scissors or a piece of paper. Make sure you have everything you will need readily available. Some good things to have close-at-hand include:
Calculator
Paper (lined and plain)
A glass of water and/or snacks
All necessary notes and textbooks
Calendar and to-do list


Set aside distractions.


Social media websites, cell phones, and television are some of the most distracting things when trying to study. Turn off your computer (or just the internet), turn your phone on silent (or leave it in another room), and turn off the T.V. Limiting the number of distractions around will help you focus and get your studying done.
Tell your family you’re going to study so they also know not to distract you.
If you want to listen to music, background music is better for memory and retention than using headphones or earbuds.




Keep it clean. 


Clutter can be very distracting so clean it up to stay focused. When you are done studying, put everything back where it belongs. If you had snacks, take your plate back to the kitchen and throw away any garbage.
Remove all non-essential items from your study space at the end of every study session.


Monday, August 7, 2023

Organised to study

 

Although studying is very important, it can be difficult to motivate yourself to do it. Making a study space that you enjoy working in is a great way to make studying less tedious. Scheduling a study plan is another great way to stay focused and keep on task with all of your assignments. By making and following a study plan, you can make sure that you don’t fall behind in any of your classes.




Organizing Your Class Materials


Keep a course binder. 

For each class you are studying for, it is best to keep a binder. All of your course notes, homework assignments, quizzes, and tests should go into the binder. You can sort them and keep them divided with tabs in the binder. Keep extra paper in the binder for taking notes during class.
Place the syllabus in the front of the binder with important deadlines highlighted.
Color code your subjects to easily keep track of everything.


Prioritize your studying. 

If you are studying for a test or exam, you are likely under a time limit. Look through the concepts you will need to know and prioritize based on what you know and how likely the concept will be on the test. If it’s something unlikely to show up and you already know it quite well, it is low priority.
Focus most of your time on the material that you struggle with. You can always review the things you know well on the last day before the test. 




Write a study checklist

When it comes time for finals, a study checklist is essential. Look through the study guide and prioritize what you need to study and put it on the list. If you struggle with a specific problem or concept while studying, add it to the checklist and take that with you when you visit your teacher or professor to ask questions.

As you go through concepts, check them off and move on to the next one.

Include important assignments and reading on your checklist as well.




Make flashcards

Flashcards are a great way to organize and study. Make flashcards throughout the year on important concepts that you come across. Flashcards are really nice because they are easily transportable and you can flip through them at any time.

If you’re waiting in a long line or commuting, take out your flashcards and review.


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